X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Unveiling Material Mysteries: Delve into the Depths with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), is a potent analytical technique employed to explore the elemental composition and chemical state of materials. 

By utilizing X-rays to interact with samples, XPS discerns the kinetic energies of emitted photoelectrons, facilitating the determination of elemental composition and electronic structure. 

How X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) works

XPS operates by bombarding the sample with X-rays, causing inner-shell electrons to be ejected. The resulting energy distribution of emitted electrons is analyzed, offering insights into the chemical bonding and oxidation states of elements within the material. 

Widely utilized in surface science, materials research, and various industries, XPS provides crucial information for understanding material properties, catalysis, and surface reactions. 

Its non-destructive nature and high sensitivity render XPS indispensable for characterizing surfaces at atomic and molecular levels. 

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurement process

In XPS, monochromatic X-rays are directed onto the sample, leading to the ejection of inner-shell electrons from their atomic orbitals. The emitted photoelectrons are then energy-analyzed using a detector. 

Each photoelectron's kinetic energy is directly linked to the difference between the energy of the incident X-ray and the electron's binding energy in its initial state. 

The resultant energy spectrum furnishes information about electron binding energies in the sample, enabling researchers to ascertain elemental composition, chemical states, and electronic structure. 

What does X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measure?

XPS discerns:

  • Elemental composition
  • Chemical state
  • Electronic structure

Primarily suitable for surface analysis of solid samples, XPS finds wide application in catalysis research, battery research, and the semiconductor industry.