Metals: low alloy steels

Low alloy steels  are widely used to produce pipes, automotive and aerospace bodies, railway lines and offshore and onshore structural engineering plates. High-strength low alloy steel is used due to its corrosion resistance properties. Low alloy steels typically contain less than 10% alloying elements (C, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, V and Si combined). Accurate and fast elemental analysis is a critical requirement during the production of steel.

Expertise program for XRF analysis of low alloy steels

The Low Alloy Steel (LAS) Expertise program delivers a complete methodology from sample preparation to quality assurance for elemental analysis using XRF and covers high-strength low alloys, high heat resistance steels (chromium-molybdenum steel), low temperature use steels, (nickel steels), weathering steels and high tensile strength steels. The method has been developed using a master calibration of more than 90 certified reference materials.

The following elements and concentration ranges are covered:

Element  Concentration range (wt%)  Element  Concentration range (wt%) 
C < LLD - 1.29 Cu 0.0013 - 0.66
Al < LLD - 0.3 As 0.0005 - 0.14
Si < LLD - 1.46 Zr 0.0015 - 0.2
P 0.002 - 0.072 Nb 0.0004 - 0.3
S 0.0009 - 0.089 Mo 0.002 - 1
Ti 0.0005 - 0.31 Sn 0.001 - 0.24
V 0.0006 - 0.52 Sb 0.0005 - 0.072
Cr 0.0015 - 5.15 Ta 0.001 - 0.23
Mn 0.0057 - 2 W 0.012 - 0.3
Co 0.0012 - 0.3 Pb < LLD - 0.024
Ni 0.002 - 4.45

Note : If the certified concentration is lower than the LLD value, the term < LLD has been used to indicate the lower limit of the concentration range

This Expertise program includes a complete methodology, from sample preparation to quality assurance, to be used with Malvern Panalytical’s XRF systems.


  • 4 monitor samples for drift correction and sample preparation correction, together with method setup templates
  • Setup of optimized analysis program and system calibration using 6 transfer samples traceable to more than 90 CRMs, enabling best throughput and accurate results, as well as easy routine analysis by factory operators
  • Setup of calibration maintenance procedure
  • Advice on workflow optimization
  • Advice on efficient preparation of samples
  • User training and documentation

NOTE: transfer samples will be made available for calibration, these samples are to be returned to Malvern Panalytical.


  • Statistical Process Control for WD XRF systems*, for setting up QA/QC workflows


  • Malvern Panalytical XRF spectrometer: ZetiumAxios, or MagiX WD XRF systems
  • Sample preparation equipment

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SPC is already included with Zetium systems